2021-04-14 01:03:38

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ENGLISH At Jupile I saw a pontoon-bridge, not in use for38 the moment. Just before this place a slightly sloping road leads from the hills to the eastern bank of the Meuse and the main road Vis-Lige. Along this road descended at that moment an immense military forceuhlans, cuirassiers, infantry, more cuirassiers, artillery, munition and forage-carts. The train seemed endless, and although I stood there looking at it for quite a long time, the end had not passed me.There was not much traffic. Only here and there stood some German soldiers, or seriously wounded men were lying on mattresses and chairs. Nearly every house by the roadside had been turned into an emergency hospital, for from all sides they brought in soldiers wounded by shells that had exploded amidst the advancing divisions.

At seven o'clock in the evening I entered Lige; and so far I had achieved my end.The division of labour, that system upon which we may say our great industrial interests are founded, is in machine fitting promoted in a wonderful degree by the use of gauging implements. If standard dimensions can be maintained, it is easy to see that the parts of a machine can be constructed by different workmen, or in different shops, and these parts when assembled all fit together, without that tedious and uncertain plan of try-fitting which was once generally practised. There are, it is true, certain kinds of fitting which cannot well be performed by gauges; moving flat surfaces, such as the bearings of lathe slides or the faces of steam engine valves, are sooner and better fitted by trying them together and scraping off the points of contact; but even in such cases the character of the work will be improved, if one or both surfaces have been first levelled by gauging or surface plates.

"Come now quietly," I said; "so much the sooner you will be back with your laddie."He flushed red with anger, and asked the sergeant what it all meant. The latter told the story and I filled in some details.

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"It will cost a great many men!"

Different kinds of gearing can be seen in almost every engineering establishment, and in view of the amount of scientific information available, it will only be necessary to point out some of the conditions that govern the use and operation of the different kinds of wheels. The durability of gearing, aside from breaking, is dependent upon pressure and the amount of rubbing action that takes place between the teeth when in contact. Spur wheels, or bevel wheels, when the pitch is accurate and the teeth of the proper form, if kept clean and lubricated, wear but little, because the contact between the teeth is that of rolling instead of sliding. In many cases, one wheel of a pair is filled with wooden cogs; in this arrangement there are four objects, to avoid noise, to attain a degree of elasticity in the teeth, to retain lubricants by absorption in the wood, and to secure by wear a better configuration of the teeth than is usually attained in casting, or even in cutting teeth.In respect to the difference between expanding and solid dies it consists mainly in the time required to run back, and the injury to dies which this operation occasions. Uniformity of [145] size is within certain limits insured by solid dies, but they are more liable to derangement and less easy to repair than expanding or independent dies.

There are also a large number of conventional phrases and endless technicalities to be learned, and to write them will assist in committing them to memory and decide their orthography.The reasons that favour combination of functions in machines, and the effects that such combinations may produce, are so various that the problem has led to a great diversity of opinions and practice among both those who construct and even those who employ machines. It may be said, too, that a great share of the combinations found in machines, such as those to turn [68], mill, bore, slot, and drill in iron fitting, are not due to any deliberate plan on the part of the makers, so much as to an opinion that such machines represent a double or increased capacity. So far has combination in machines been carried, that in one case that came under the writer's notice, a machine was arranged to perform nearly every operation required in finishing the parts of machinery; completely organised, and displaying a high order of mechanical ability in design and arrangement, but practically of no more value than a single machine tool, because but one operation at a time could be performed.

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LOUVAIN UNDER THE MAILED FIST

76Having got them, several officers examined my credentials, and their faces showed that the horizon was a little clearer for me.The successful application of the pneumatic system at the Mont Cenis Tunnel in Italy, and at the Hoosac Tunnel in America, has demonstrated the value of the system where the air not only served to transmit power to operate the machinery but to ventilate the mines at the same time. Air brakes for railway trains are another example illustrating the advantages of pneumatic transmission; the force being multiplied at the points where it is applied, so that the connecting pipes are reduced to a small size, the velocity of the air making up for a great force that formerly had to be communicated through rods, chains, or shafts. The principal object attained by the use of air to operate railway brakes is, however, to maintain a connection throughout a train by means of flexible pipes that accommodate themselves to the varying distance between the carriages. Presuming that the flow of air in pipes is not materially impeded by friction or angles, and that there will be no difficulty in maintaining lubrication for pistons or other inaccessible parts of machinery when driven by air, there seems to be many reasons in favour of its use as a means of distributing power in manufacturing districts. The diminished cost of motive power when [56] it is generated on a large scale, and the expense and danger of maintaining an independent steam power for each separate establishment where power is employed, especially in cities, are strong reasons in favour of generating and distributing power by compressed air, through pipes, as gas and water are now supplied.

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Apr-14 01:03:38