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    不定式造句beg to do sth

        发布时间:2020-09-09

        不定式和动名词作主语的区别:
        (1) 动名词作主语通常表示抽象动作;而不定式作主语表示具体动作。
        Smoking is prohibited(禁止)here.这里禁止抽烟。(抽象)
        It is not very good for you to smoke so much.你抽这么多烟对你身体很不好。(具体)
        (2) 动名词作主语时,通常用以表示一件已知的事或经验。不定式短语通常用来表示一件未完成的事
        或目的。
        Climbing mountains is interesting.爬山很有趣。(经验)
        Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在高峰时刻开车令人厌烦。(经验)
        To finish the task will take a long time. 要完成这项任务将要花费很长时间。(具体)
        (3) 不定式做主语,一般用it当形式主语,把作主语的不定式短语后置。
        It took me only five minutes to finish the job.

        不定式、动名词和分词作表语的区别:
        (1) 不定式作表语
        1) 不定式作表语一般表示具体动作,特别是表示将来的动作。
        To do two things at a time is to do neither.一次做两件事等于未做。
        2)如果主语是不定式,表语也必须是不定式。
        To see is to believe.百闻不如一见。
        To work means to earn a living.工作就是为了生活。
        3) 如果主语是以aim,duty,hope,idea,happiness,job,plan,problem,purpose,thing,wish等
        为中心的名词,或以what引导的名词性从句,不定式作表语是对主语起补充说明作用。
        His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future. 他的希望是在不远的将来买一辆豪华轿车。
        What I would suggest is to start work at once. 我的建议是立刻开始干。
        The most important thing is to negotiate with them about the future of the plant.
        (2) 动名词作表语:动名词作表语,表示抽象的一般性的行为。
        Our work is serving the people.我们的工作是为人民服务。
        His hobby is collecting stamps.他的爱好是集邮。
        (3) 分词作表语
        分词做表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词做表语,一种是过去分词做表语,这两者区别是考试
        中经常考到的地方。一般来说,表示心理状态的动词如excite,interest等都是及物动词,汉语意思不
        是“激动”,“高兴”,而是“使激动”、“使高兴”,因而现在分词应该是“令人激动的”、“令人高兴
        的”,过去分词则是“感到激动的”和“感到高兴的”。所以,凡表示“令人……的”都是-ing形式,
        凡是表示“感到……”都用-ed形式。例:
        The cartoon is interesting to children. 这部卡通片对孩子来说令人兴趣。
        Children are interested in the cartoon. 孩子们对这部卡通片感兴趣。
        这类动词常见的有:
        delighting 令人高兴的-- delighted 感到高兴的
        disappointing 令人失望的 disappointed 感到失望的
        encouraging 令人鼓舞的-- encouraged 感到鼓舞的
        exciting 令人激动的-- excited 感到激动的
        interesting 令人感到高兴-- interested 感到高兴的
        pleasing 令人愉快的-- pleased 感到愉快的
        puzzling 令人费解的-- puzzled 感到费解的
        satisfying 令人满意的--- satisfied 感到满意的
        surprising 令人惊异的-- surprised 感到惊异的
        worrying 令人担心的-- worried 感到担心的
        Travelling is interesting but tiring.旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲劳。
        The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.如果要学生学得太多,他们会感到糊
        涂的。
        The argument is very convincing.他的论点很令人信服。
        They were very excited at the news.听到这个消息,他们非常激动。
        不定式和动名词作宾语的区别:
        英语中大多数动词既可跟不定式,也可跟动名词作直接宾语,但有些动词要求:
        (1) 不定式做宾语和宾语补足语
        1) 下面的动词要求不定式做宾语
        afford负担得起 agree同意 appear似乎,显得 arrange安排
        ask问 attempt企图 beg请求 begin开始
        choose选择 claim要求 decide决定 demand要求
        desire愿望 determine决定 expect期望 fail不能
        forget忘记 happen碰巧 hate憎恨,厌恶 hesitate犹豫
        hope希望 intend想要 learn学习 long渴望
        love爱 manage设法 mean意欲,打算 need需要
        neglect忽视 offer提供 omit忽略,漏 other扰乱;烦恼
        plan计划 prefer喜欢,宁愿 prepare准备 pretend假装
        promise承诺,允许 refuse拒绝 regret抱歉,遗憾 seek找,寻觅
        start开始 try试图 volunteer志愿 want想要
        wish希望
        例如:He managed to pass the maths exam this time. 这次他设法通过了数学考试。
        2) 下面的动词可用不定式做宾补:动词+宾语+动词不定式:
        advise劝告 allow允许 ask要求,邀请 beg请求
        cause引起 command命令 direct指导 drive驱赶
        enable使能够 encourage鼓励 entitle有资格 forbid禁止
        force强迫 get请,得到 hate憎恶 help帮助
        inspire鼓舞 instruct指示 intend想要,企图 invite吸引,邀请
        lead引起,使得 leave使,让 like喜欢 mean意欲,打算
        need需要 oblige不得不 order命令 permit允许
        prefer喜欢,宁愿 prompt促使 pronounce断定 recommend劝告,推荐
        remind提醒 request请求 require要求 teach教
        tell告诉 tempt劝诱 train训练 urge激励,力说
        want想要 warn告诫 wish希望
        例如:Teachers often encourage us to learn English well. 老师经常鼓励我们要学好英语。
        (2) 有些动词只能用动名词作宾语
        admit 承认 appreciate 欣赏 avoid避免 bear忍受
        can’t help不禁 can’t stand受不了 confess坦白 consider 考虑
        delay延迟 deny否认 dislike不喜欢,讨厌 endure忍受
        enjoy享有,喜爱 escape逃跑,逃避 excuse借口 favor 造成,偏爱
        finish完成,结束不得 forgive原谅 hate讨厌 imagine设想
        involve卷入,包含 keep保持 mention说到,讲到 mind 介意
        miss错过 permit 允许 postpone延迟,延期 practise 实行,实践
        prevent阻止 resist抵抗,阻止 risk冒险 suggest建议
        tolerate忍受
        例如:They decided to delay holding the sports meeting because of the hard rain.
        由于大雨他们决定推迟召开运动会。
        (3)有些动词比如allow, advise, permit, encourage等后面直接跟动词只能是动名词,如果后面跟宾补则只能是不定式。例如:
        Our school allows using calculators in the maths exam. 我们学校允许在数学考试中使用计算器。
        Our school allows students to use calculators in the maths exam. 我们学校允许学生在数学考试中
        使用计算器。
        (4) 有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差别
        1)forget to do 忘记要去做某事(此事未做)
        forget doing忘记做过某事(此事已做过或已发生)
        2)stop to do 停止、中断(某件事),目的是去做另一件事
        stop doing 停止正在或经常做的事
        3)remember to do 记住去做某事(未做)
        remember doing记得做过某事(已做)
        4) regret to do对要做的事遗憾
        regret doing对做过的事遗憾、后悔
        5)try to do努力、企图做某事
        try doing试验、试一试某种办法
        6) mean to do打算,有意要…
        mean doing意味着
        7)go on to do 继而(去做另外一件事情)
        go on doing 继续(原先没有做完的事情)
        8)propose to do 打算(要做某事)
        proposing doing建议(做某事)
        9) like /love/hate/ prefer +to do 表示具体行为;+doing sth 表示抽象、倾向概念
        (注)如果这些动词前有should一词,其后宾语只跟不定式,不能跟动名词。例如:
        I should like to see him tomorrow.
        10)need, want, require, deserve +动名词表被动意义;+不定式被动态表示“要(修、清理等)”意
        思。 例:
        The room needs cleaning / to be cleaned. 这房间需要打扫一下。
        Don’t you remember seeing the man before? 你不记得以前见过那个人吗?
        You must remember to leave tomorrow.你可要记着是明天动身。
        I don’t regret telling her what I thought.我不后悔给她讲过我的想法。(已讲过)
        I regret to have to do this,but I have no choice.我很遗憾必须这样去做,我实在没办法。(未
        做但要做)
        You must try to be more careful.你可要多加小心。
        Let’s try doing the work some other way.让我们试一试用另外一种办法来做这工作。
        I didn’t mean to hurt your feeling.我没想要伤害你的感情。
        This illness will mean(your)going to hospital.得了这种病(你)就要进医院。
        不定式和分词作状语的区别:
        (1) 现在分词与过去分词作状语的区别。
        现在分词做状语与过去分词做状语的最主要区别在于两者与所修饰的主语的主动与被动关系的
        区别。
        1)现在分词作状语时,现在分词的动作就是句子主语的动作,它们之间的关系是主动关系。
        He went out shutting the door behind him. 他出去后将门随手关上。
        Not knowing what to do, he went to his parents for help. 由于不知如何办是好,他去找父母帮
        忙。
        2)过去分词作状语时,过去分词表示的动作是句子主语承受的动作,它们之间的关系是被动关
        系。
        Given more attention, the trees could have grown better. 如果对这些树多关心一些,它们本来会
        长得更好。
        Faced with difficulties, we must try to overcome them. 在遭遇到困难的时候,我们必须设法克
        服它们。
        (2) 动词不定式和分词作状语放在句末的区别
        1) 分词作状语一般表示伴随,而不定式常常表示目的。
        They stood by the roadside talking about the plan.他们站在路边谈论着这个计划。(伴随)
        They stood by the roadside to talk about the plan.他们站在路边为的是谈论这个计划。(目的)
        2) 分词作状语放在句子开头,除表示原因之外有时表示时间或条件。动词不定式作状语时,除
        了表示目的以外,还表示结果或原因。
        Reading attentively,he forgot the time for lunch.由于在专心读书,他忘了吃午饭的时间。(原
        因)
        Reading carefully,he found something he had not known before.他仔细读书时,发现了一些
        从前不知道的东西。(时间)
        Reading carefully,you'll learn something new.只要你仔细阅读,你会学到一些新的东西。(条
        件)
        His family was too poor to support him.他的家庭太穷,不能维持他的生活。(结果)
        The boy is not tall enough to reach the book shelf.这男孩个子不够高,手伸不到书架。(结果)
        We are glad to hear the news.我们很高兴听到这消息。(原因)
        (3)下面一些句型是不定式做状语时候应该注意的:
        A:not/never too…to, too…not to , but/only too… to, too ready/eager/glad/anxious to 表
        示肯定意义。 例:
        You will never be too careful in the exam. 考试时你越仔细越好。
        He is too careful not to notice something abnormal. 他很仔细会注意到异常情况的。
        B:做结果状语的不定式只能出现在句子的末尾,常见的不定式动词有:find, hear, see, be told,
        form, give, make, produce, say等。 例如:
        I was too angry at that to say about it. 我对此气得话也说不出来。
        He hurried to the bank only to find/be told that it was closed. 他匆匆忙忙赶到银行却发现关门
        了。
        C:不定式做状语时,其逻辑主语一般为句子的主语,否则用for引导主语。 例:
        Li Ming’s mother went to the lecture hall early for him to get a good seat. 李明的母亲一早就去演讲厅了,为了让他可以得到一个好座位。

        动词不定式:(to)+do,具有名词、形容词、副词的特征。
        1、不定式的形式:
        主 动 被 动
        一般式 To write to be written
        进行式 to be writing /
        完成式 to have written to have been written
        否定式:not + (to) do
        1)一般式:不定式的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在谓语动词动作之后,
        例如:
        I’m glad to meet you.
        He seems to know a lot.
        We plan to pay a visit.
        He wants to be an artist.
        The patient asked to be operated on at once.
        The teacher ordered the work to be done.
        2)进行式:不定式的进行式所表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,例如:
        The boy pretended to be working hard.
        He seems to be reading in his room.
        3)完成式:不定式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前,例如:
        I regretted to have told a lie.
        I happened to have seen the film.
        He is pleased to have met his friend.
        2、不定式的句法功能:
        1)作主语:
        To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard.
        To lose your heart means failure.
        动词不定式短语作主语时,常用形式主语it作形式主语,例如上面两句可用如下形式:
        It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes.
        It means failure to lose your heart.
        2)作表语:
        Her job is to clean the hall.
        He appears to have caught a cold.
        3)作宾语:
        常与不定式做宾语连用的动词有:want, hope, wish, offer, fail, plan, learn, pretend, refuse, manage, help, agree, promise, prefer, 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面,例如:
        Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia.
        动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如:
        I have no choice but to stay here.
        He did nothing last Sunday but repair his bike.
        动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如:
        He gave us some advice on how to learn English.
        4)作宾语补足语:
        在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语补足语,如下动词常跟这种复合宾语: want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite.
        此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如:
        With a lot of work to do, he didn’t go to the cinema.
        有些动词如make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have等与不带有to的不定式连用,但改为被动语态时,不定式要加to, 如:
        I saw him cross the road.
        He was seen to cross the road.
        5)作定语:
        动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系:
        A)动宾关系:
        I have a meeting to attend.
        注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如:
        He found a good house to live in.
        The child has nothing to worry about.
        What did you open it with?
        如果不定式修饰time, place, way,可以省略介词:
        He has no place to live.
        This is the best way to work out this problem.
        如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式:
        Have you got anything to send?
        Have you got anything to be sent?
        B)说明所修饰名词的内容:
        We have made a plan to finish the work.
        C)被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语:
        He is the first to get here.
        6)作状语:
        A)表目的:
        He worked day and night to get the money.
        She sold her hair to buy the watch chain.
        注意不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致:
        wrong: To save money, every means has been tried.
        right: To save money, he has tried every means.
        wrong: To learn English well, a dictionary is needed.
        right: To learn English well, he needs a dictionary.
        B)表结果:
        He arrived late to find the train gone.
        常用only放在不定式前表示强调:
        I visited him only to find him out.
        C)表原因:
        They were very sad to hear the news.
        D)表程度:
        It’s too dark for us to see anything.
        The question is simple for him to answer.
        7)作独立成分:
        To tell you the truth, I don’t like the way he talked.
        8)不定式的省略:保留to省略do动词。
        If you don’t want to do it, you don’t need to.
        9)不定式的并列:第二个不定式可省略to。
        He wished to study medicine and become a doctor.

        (二)动名词:动名词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有名词的句法功能。
        1、动名词的形式:
        语 态 主动语态 被动语态
        一般式 doing being done
        完成式 having done having been done
        否定式:not + 动名词
        1)一般式:
        Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。
        2)被动式:
        He came to the party without being invited. 他未被邀请就来到了晚会。
        3)完成式:
        We remembered having seen the film. 我们记得看过这部电影。
        4)完成被动式:
        He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old. 他忘记五岁时曾被带到广州去过。
        5)否定式:not + 动名词
        I regret not following his advice. 我后悔没听他的劝告。
        6)复合结构:物主代词(或名词所有格)+ 动名词
        He suggested our trying it once again. 他建议我们再试一次。
        His not knowing English troubled him a lot. 他不懂英语给他带来许多麻烦。
        2、动名词的句法功能:
        1)作主语:
        Reading aloud is very helpful. 朗读是很有好处的。
        Collecting stamps is interesting. 集邮很有趣。
        当动名词短语作主语时常用it作形式主语。
        It’s no use quarrelling. 争吵是没用的。
        2)作表语:
        In the ant city, the queen’s job is laying eggs. 在蚂蚁王国,蚁后的工作是产卵。
        3)作宾语:
        They haven’t finished building the dam. 他们还没有建好大坝。
        We have to prevent the air from being polluted. 我们必须阻止空气被污染。
        注意动名词既可作动词宾语也可作介词宾语,如上面两个例句。此外,动名词作宾语时,若跟有宾语补足语,则常用形式宾语it,例如:
        We found it no good making fun of others. 我们发现取笑他人不好。
        要记住如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语:
        enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid(避免), excuse ,delay, imagine, keep, miss, consider, admit(承认),deny(否认), mind, permit, forbid, practise, risk(冒险), appreciate(感激), be busy, be worth, feel like, can’t stand, can’t help, think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent…(from),keep …from, stop…(from),protect…from, set about, be engaged in, spend…(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on, feel like
        4)作定语:
        He can’t walk without a walking-stick. 他没有拐杖不能走路。
        Is there a swimming pool in your school. 你们学校有游泳池吗?
        5)作同位语:
        The cave, his hiding-place is secret. 那个山洞,他藏身的地方很秘密。
        His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged. 他收听收音机新闻节目的习惯仍未改变。

        回复:

        to be 句型是指动词不定式中将动词替换成be动词,表作为,例如
        I hope to be a teacher in the future.

        to do句型是极为普通的不定式句型。
        不定式句型的介绍
        一、作主语

        【句型结构】 It + be + adj.+ for(of) +sb. + to do sth.(that-clause).

        【语法描述】 不定式作主语时,往往用 it作形式主语,而把不定式放在谓语动词之后。

        【常用形容词】 important, necessary, natural, easy, safe, common, normal, hard, difficult, dangerous, unusual, impossible, bad, brave, careless, clever, nice, polite, wrong, kind, lazy, good, honest, etc.

        【举例说明】 In China it is rather common to have only one child for one family. 在中国,一个家庭只有一个孩子是很平常的事。

        It is impolite of you to say that to your mother. 你对妈妈说那样的话是不礼貌的。

        二、作宾语

        【句型结构】 S + V + to do sth.

        【语法描述】 某些动词只能带动词不定式作宾语,不定式所表示的动作往往在这些动词所表示的动作之后发生。

        【常用动词】 afford, arrange, ask, attempt, agree, care, choose, demand, decide, determine, expect, fail, hope, long, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seek, want, wish, desire, etc.

        【举例说明】 They managed to escaped to South America. 他们设法逃到了南美洲。

        We are planning to have an English evening party next week. 我们计划下周举行一个英语晚会。

        He agreed to go there with me after school. 他同意放学后跟我一起去那里。

        三、作宾语补足语

        【句型结构一】 S + V + O + to do sth.

        【语法描述】 某些动词可以跟带 to的不定式作宾语补足语,以说明宾语将要执行的动作内容。

        【常用动词】 advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, wish, request, reach, consider,

        encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, help, inspire, invite, like, order, permit, persuade, prepare, need, remind, require, tell, want, warn, etc.

        【举例说明】 He warned every child not to touch the medicine on the table. 他警告每一个孩子不要动桌子上的药。

        Father encouraged me to study English well. 父亲鼓励我要努力学好外语。

        【句型结构二】 S + V + O + do sth.

        【语法描述】 感官动词和役使动词后常跟不带 to的不定式作宾语,但这种结构在变成被动语态时要加上to。

        【常用动词】 see, look at, watch, observe, notice, hear, listen to, make, have, etc.

        【举例说明】 Last night I saw him play the violin with his eyes shut. 昨天晚上我看见他闭着眼拉小提琴。

        Though he had often made his little sister cry, today he was made to cry by his little sister. 尽管他经常把他妹妹弄哭,但是今天他却被他的妹妹弄哭了。

        四、作定语

        【句型结构一】 N + to do

        【语法描述】 动词不定式和它所修饰的名词之间构成逻辑上的主谓关系,往往表示“未做”、“要做”的意思。

        【举例说明】 The meeting to take place here next year in China is sure to be a great success. 明年将在中国举行的会议肯定会是一个成功的会议。

        A man not to learn from others can't make much progress. 不向别人学习的人是不能取得很大进步的。

        【句型结构二】 N + to be done(to do)

        【语法描述】 动词不定式和它所修饰的名词之间构成逻辑上的动宾关系,此时一般用不定式的被动式;若句中有一名词或代词,实际上是不定式动作的执行者时,不定式则常用主动形式表示被动意义。

        【举例说明】 Is this the problem to be discussed at the meeting next week? 这就是在下周的会议上要讨论的问题吗?

        There will be more than three hundred scientists attending the meeting to be held the day after tomorrow. 有三百多位科学家将参加在后天举行的会议。

        The nurse has five children to look after. 这个护士要照顾五个孩子。

        【句型结构三】 N + to do

        【语法描述】 在这种结构中,名词往往表示动词不定式所表示的动作发生的时间、地点等,它们之间构成逻辑上的动状关系。

        【举例说明】 Years of hard work, little food, only a cold room to live in and never, never a

        moment to rest. 数年的艰苦劳动,食不裹腹,寒室一间,从来也没有片刻的休息时间。

        Yesterday I bought a big wooden box to put all my books in. 昨天我买了个放书的大木头盒子。

        五、作状语

        【句型结构】 to/ in order to / so as to + do sth.

        【语法描述】动词不定式作状语可以表示目的、原因、结果和方式等。

        【举例说明】 I went to the store to (in order to, so as to) buy a birthday present for my mother.我去商店给妈妈买了个生日礼物。 (表目的)

        We jumped with joy to hear the good news. 我们听到这个好消息高兴地跳了起来。(表原因)

        回复:

        其实你掌握基本方法就行了。动词+ to do sth【动词不定式作宾语】,常见的有:want,hope,wish,offer,fail,plan,learn,pretend,refuse,manage,help,agree,promise,prefer。如:He wants to go home.
        He hopes to visit his teacher.
        动词+ sb to do sth【动词不定式作宾补,因为不定式是宾语的动作】不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:advise,allow,ask,beg,cause,direct,encourage,expect,forbid,force,invite,order,permit,persuade,remind,re-quest,require,teach,tell,want,warn等。如:
        He advised me to give up smoking.
        He allowed me to leave a little earlier

        回复:

        定式的全称是“动词不定式”,是一种非限定动词,由不定式符号to+动词原形构成。不定式具有动词的特征,同时也有名词、形容词和副词的特征。 动词不定式是一种非限定性动词,由to+动词原形构成,但它还是属于动词,所以它本身可以带宾语和状语。...

        回复:

        就是这了。

        回复:

        动名词与不定式 1) 动名词与不定式的区别: 动名词表达的是: 状态,性质,心境,抽象,经常性,已发生的 不定式表达的是: 目的,结果,原因,具体,一次性,将发生的 2) 接不定式或动名词,意义相同。 3) 动名词与不定式语义不同的有11 组...

        回复:

        to be 结构是指动词不定式中,将动词替换成be动词,表作为,例如: I hope to be a teacher in the future.

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